Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; clinical characteristics, risk factors, diagnosis and outcome in a tertiary hospital

Hind Alnajashi


Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon form of stroke that has a highly variable clinical presentation. Data from Middle East and in particular Saudi Arabia are scarce.

In this study, we evaluated clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with CVT in a tertiary hospital, Saudi Arabia.

A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed at a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia which included a total of 97 patients admitted with CVT diagnosis between January 2010 to December 2019. Demographic data, clinical information, radiological test, the in-hospital mortality recorded, and a three month outcome were retrieved from the health information system.

Mean age was 42 years with 83.5 per cent female predominance. Headache was the most frequent initial presentation in 79 per cent. During the course of the illness 41 per cent developed seizures and were significantly associated with the presence of intracerebral haemorrhage (p < 0.02). Oral contraceptive was a major risk factor in 21 per cent, no underlying risk factor or cause was found in 30 per cent of the patients. Non-contrast CT scan was reported normal in 30 per cent of the cases. In-hospital mortality was low, and prognosis at follow up was good.

Female predominance and headache being the first manifestation were reconfirmed. A non-contrast CT scan can show some abnormalities but was normal in about 30 per cent of cases. Awareness about CVT clinical presentation and diagnostic tests are important to prevent misdiagnosis. These finding may be important to further characterize the condition in this area.
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