Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in toddlers and schoolchildren in Najran region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Helmy Faris Shalayel


There is an ongoing interest in the relationship between vitamin D status and diabetes control and complications. However, data from Saudi Arabia are limited. Human studies demonstrated the positive association between insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and serum levels of osteocalcin and vitamin D.

This study aimed to explore the possible role of circulating osteocalcin in the pathogenesis of T1DM and its correlation with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and vitamin D levels in Saudi Arabia children with T1DM.

This cross-sectional observational hospital based- case control study that included 132 Saudi children clinically diagnosed as type 1 diabetes mellitus and 72 apparently healthy children.

There were statistically weak negative correlations for FPG with UCOC and TOC in diabetic children (r=-0.294, p < 0.01 and -0.358, p < 0.0001 respectively). A moderately significant positive correlation between FPG and BMI and a significantly negative correlation between 25(OH)D3 and FPG (r=-0.62, p < 0.0001) were found. Moreover, there was a moderately significant positive correlation between levels of vitamin D and UCOC in healthy control group (r=0.457, p < 0.0001). Such significance was not present in diabetic group (r=-0.077, p < 0.38).

Levels of 25(OH)D3, TOC, and UCOC were significantly diminished in children with T1DM suggesting the bidirectional influence of β cells on vitamin D and osteocalcin and vice versa. The reverse correlation between UCOC and HbA1c may indicate the probable prognostic value of UCOC as the lower UCOC, the worse glycaemic control in diabetic children.
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