Incidence and outcome of renal anomalies in children with down syndrome

Osama Y Safdar, Randa I Albloushy, Salma H Sait, Salma H Almadani, Alaa A Ismail


Down syndrome is one of the most common occurring chromosomal disorders, which involves multiple systems. Renal and urinary tract anomalies have been reported to occur at increased frequency among this population.

This study aims to estimate the prevalence of renal anomalies in Down syndrome patients, as well as to evaluate their outcome.

A retrospective study was conducted in the tertiary hospital, KAUH, from the period of August to October 2016. Files and medical records of 261 patients diagnosed with Down syndrome were reviewed and retrieved from the years 2005–2016.

Out of the 241 patients, 113 (46.9 per cent) were screened by ultrasound imaging. Renal abnormalities were detected in 51 (21.2 per cent) patients. Of whom 20 (39.2 per cent) were females and 31 (60.8 per cent) males. Abnormalities detected on imaging consisted of: hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, obstruction, malpositioned kidney, renovascular anomalies and others.

The outcomes of the patients with renal involvement were as following: five patients (9.8 per cent) developed chronic kidney disease, eight (15.7 per cent) died due to different causes: (DIC, multiple organ failure, Respiratory arrest, sepsis, and unspecified), and 38 (74.5 per cent) showed no progression of the renal disease.
The prevalence of renal abnormalities in Down syndrome was found to be high so early screening for Down syndrome patients is recommended to help diagnose them earlier. Further studies are recommended to follow up Down syndrome patients with renal abnormalities.
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